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STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

SALEM, MASSACHUSETTS 




FIFTY-FIFTH YEAR 
1908-1909 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

SALEM, MASSACHUSETTS 




FIFTY-FIFTH YEAR 
1908-1909 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



State Board of Education. 



Established 1837. 



His Excellency EBEN S. DRAPER. 
His Honor LOUIS A. FROTHINGHAM. 



Clinton Q. Richmond, A.B., 
George I. Aldrich, A.M., 
Ella Lyman Cabot, 
Albert E. Winship, Litt. D., 
Thomas B. Fitzpatrick, 
Frederick P. Fish, 
Joel D. Miller, A.M., 
Kate Gannett Wells, 



North Adams, 

Brookline, 

Boston, 

Somerville, 

Brookline, 

Boston, 

Leominster, 

Boston, 



TERM EXPIRES 

. May 25, 1913. 

. May 25, 1914. 

. May 25, 1915. 

. May 25, 1916. 

. May 25, 1909. 

. May 25, 1910. 

. May 25, 1911. 

. May 25, 1912. 



OFFICERS OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 



George H. Martin, A.M., Secretary, . 
Caleb B. Tillinghast, A.M., Clerk and Treasurer, 
John T. Prince, Ph.D., Agent, .... 
Julius E. Warren, Agent, . . . . 

James W. MacDonald, A.M., Agent, . 
Frederic L. Burnham, Agent, .... 



Lynn. 

Boston. 

West Newton. 

Worcester. 

Stoneham. 

Cambridge. 



BOARD OF VISITORS. 

Ella Lyman Cabot. Joel D. Miller, A.M. 



Instructors. 



The Normal School. 

JOSEPH ASBURY PITMAN, Principal. 

Theory and Practice of Teaching, History of Education. 
Harriet Laura Martin, ..... Algebra, Geometry, Latin. 

Jessie Pcttnam Leaboyd, ........ English. 

Charles Eugene Adams, . . . Physics, Chemistry, Physiography. 

Charles Frederick Whitney, ...... Manual Arts. 

Mary Alice Warren, Nature Study, Physiology, Physical Training, Gardening. 
Gertrude Brown Goldsmith, A. B., . . Zoology, Botany, Psychology. 

Frances Boutelle Deane, . History of Commerce, U. S. History, Civics. 

Librarian. 
Helix Hood EtoGl H ..... Reading, Physical Training. 

Cassie Lucretia Paine, 1 . . . Supervisor of Training. Child Study. 

Fred Willis Archibald, ........ Music. 

Harriet Emma Peet, ..... Literature, Arithmetic. 

Sumner Webster Cushing, S.B., . . . Physiography, Geography. 

Commercial Geography. 
Frederick Walter Ried, ...... Manual Training. 

Arthur John Meredith, Ph.B., Bookkeeping, Commercial Law, Commercial 

Arithmetic, Penmanship, Economics. 
Mary Louise Smith, A. B., . . . Shorthand, Typewriting, Com- 

mercial Correspondence. 
Louise Caroline Wellman, .... Secretary. Typewriting. 



The Practice Schools. 

ALTON CLIFFORD CHURBUCK, Principal, 

Maud Sarah Wheeler, 
Marjorie Huse, 
Bessie Jordan Welch, 
Sallimae Merrill Dennett, 
Mary Elizabeth James, 
Delia Frances Campbell, 2 
Helen Merrill Dillingham, 
Louise FarrtngtOn, 



Eighth Grade. 
Seventh Grade- 
Sixth Grade 
Fifth Grade. 
Fourth Grade. 
Third Grade. 
Second Grade. 
First Grade. 
Kindergarten. 



1 Absent on leave, 1909-10. Substitute, Mabel Lucile Bobbs. 

2 Absent on leave. Substitute, Bertha Louisa Carpenter. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



The Bertram School. 

, . . . . . ... Third Grade. 

Susan Ellen Ropes, ....... Second Grade, 

Mildred May Moses, ....... First Grade. 

Alice Martha Wyman, ....... Kindergarten. 

The Farms School, Marblehead. 

Bertiista Dyer, ........ Ungraded. 



Officers of the Saleh Norhal Association. 

1907-1910. 



Miss Harriet L. Martin, Salem (Class XXIII.), . 

Mrs. Abbie Richardson Hood, Beverly (Class LVII.), 

Miss Dorothea C. Sawtell, Peabody (Class LXVIII.), 

Miss Mary A. Grant, Salem (Class LXX.), 

Miss Frances B. Deane, Salem (Class LXXXVII.), 

Mrs. Elizabeth R. Horton, Boston (Class I.), 

Miss Sophia O. Driver, 1 Salem (Class XVIII.), 

Mrs. Caroline E. Tenney, Wollaston (Class XXXVII.), 

Miss Mabel Bennett Davis, Roslindale (Class LXL), 

Miss Lillian W. Downing, Beverly (Class LXXVIL), 



President. 
Vice-Presiden t . 
First Secretary. 
Second Secretary. 
Treasurer. 



Directors. 



Officers, Senior Class. 

Ethel M. Foster, ....... President. 

Ruby Christie, ........ Vice-President, 

Bertha Sperry, ........ Secretary. 

Bertha Deane, ........ Treasurer. 



Hembers of the School Council 

J. Asbury Pitman, 
Harriet L. Martix, 
Jessie P. Learoyd, 
Ethel M. Foster, 
Alice Clifford, 
Hildtjr Enlind, 
Ruth Merritt, 
Mary V. Keating, 
Warren W. Oliver, 



I 



Faculty. 



Senior Class. 



Junior Class. 



1 Died September, 1908. 



Calendar for 1909=1910. 



Spring Recess. 

From close of school on Saturday, February 27, 1909, to Tuesday, 

March 9, 1909, at 9.20 a.m. 
From close of school on Saturday, May 1, 1909, to Tuesday, May 

11, 1909, at 9.20 a.m. 

Graduation. 

Tuesday, June 22, 1909, at 10.30 a.m. 

First Entrance Examinations. 

Thursday, June 24, 1909. 

8.30-9.30 a.m. — Registration. 

9.30-11.30 a.m. — Group I. 

11.30 A.M.-12.30 p.m. — Group III. 

2-4 p.m. — Group IV. 
Friday, June 25, 1909. 

9.30-11.30 a.m. — Group II. 

11.30 A.M.-12.30 p.m. — Group V. 

Second Entrance Examinations. 

Tuesday and Wednesday, September 7 and S, 1909. 
(Hours and order as above.) 

Beginning of School Year. 

Thursday, September 9, 1909, at 9.20 a.m. 

Thanksgiving Recess. 

From Wednesday, 12 m., preceding Thanksgiving Day, i«» the fol- 
lowing Tuesday, at 9.20 a.m. 



8 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 

Christmas Recess. 

From close of school on Thursday, December 2.3, 1909, to Tuesday. 

January 4, 1910, at 9.20 a.m. 

Beginning of Second Half=year. 

Tuesday, February 1, 1910. 

Spring Recess. 

From close of school on Saturday, February 26, 1910, to Tuesday. 

March 8, 1910, at 9.20 a.m. 
Prom close of school on Saturday, April 30, 1910, to Tuesday. 

May 10. 1910, at 9.20 a.m. 

Graduation. 

Tuesday. .June 21. 1010. at 10.30 a.m. 

First Entrance Examinations. 

Thursday and Friday, June 2:5 and 24. 1010. 
(Hours and order as above.) 

Second Entrance Examinations. 

Tuesday and Wednesday, September and 7. L910. 
(Hours and order as above.) 



Note. — The daily sessions of the school are from 9.20 to 12.30 and from 1.30 to 3 
o'clock. The regular weekly holiday is on Monday, but the pract ice schools conform to 
the rules governing the other public schools in Salem, and have their holiday on Saiiii- 

DAY. 

The telephone call of the school is " Salem, 375." 

The principal's residence is at 260 Lafayette Street, and his telephone call is 149-1. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, 

Salem, Massachusetts. 



AIMS AND PURPOSES. 

The aim of the school is distinctly professional. Normal 
schools are maintained by the State in order that the children in 
the public schools of the Commonwealth may have teachers of 
superior ability. No student may be admitted to or retained in 
the school, therefore, who does not give .reasonable promise of 
developing into an efficient teacher. 

.The school offers as thorough a course of academic instruction 
as time and the claims of professional training will permit. The 
subjects of the elementary curriculum are carefully reviewed with 
reference to methods of teaching. The professional training also 
includes the study of man from the standpoint of physiology and 
of psychology; the principles of education upon which all prac- 
tical teaching is founded; observation and practice in the appli- 
cation of these principles; and a practical study of children under 
careful direction. In all the work of the school there is a con- 
stant and persistent effort to develop a true professional spirit. 
and to reveal to the student the wealth of opportunity which is 
open to the teacher, and the grandeur of a life of real service. 

ADMISSION. 
General Requirements. 

Candidates for admission must, it young women, have at- 
tained the age of sixteen years, and it young men. the age of 
seventeen years, and they must declare their intention to teach. 
and to complete the course of study if possible. 'Their fitness for 
admission will he determined : — 

(1) By their standing in a physical examination. 

(2) By their moral character. 

(3) By their high school record. 

(I) (a) By certificate. (&) By written examination. 
(5) By an oral examination. 



10 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SAL KM. 



(1) Physical Examination. 

The State Board of Education adopted the following vote 
March 7, 1901: — 

That the visitors of the several normal schools be authorized and 
directed to provide for a physical examination of candidates for 
admission to the normal schools, in order to determine whether they 
are free from any disease or infirmity which would unfit them for 
the office of teacher, and also to examine any student at any time 
in the course, to determine whether his physical condition is such as 
to warrant his continuance in the school. 

(2) Moral Character. 

Candidates must present certificates of good moral character. 
In deciding whether they shall prepare themselves to become 
teachers, candidates should note that the vocation requires more 
than mere freedom from disqualifying defects; it demands vir- 
tues of a positive sort that shall make their impress for good upon 
those who are taught. 

(3) High School Record. 

It may be said, in general, that if the ordinary work of a good 
statutory high school is well done, candidates should have no 
difficulty in meeting the academic tests to which they may be 
subjected. They cannot be too earnestly urged, however, to avail 
1h <)n selves of the best high school facilities attainable in a four 
years' course, even though they should pursue studies to an extent 
not insisted on, or take studies not prescribed, in the admission 
requirements. 

The importance of a good record in the high school cannot be 
overestimated. Principals are requested to furnish the normal 
schools with complete records of the high school standing of all 
candidates. The stronger the evidence of character, scholarship 
and promise, of whatever kind, candidates bring, especially from 
schools of high reputation and from teachers of good judgment 
and fearless expression, the greater confidence they may have in 
guarding themselves against the contingencies of an examination 
and of satisfying the examiners as to their fitno— 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 11 



(4a) Admission on Certificate. 

At the regular meeting of the Board of Education held on 
May 2, 1907, the following votes were passed : — 

College graduates may be admitted to the State normal schools 
without examination, and may receive a diploma after satisfactorily 
completing a course of one year, requiring at least twenty recitation 
periods per week and including the advanced pedagogy and practice 
of the senior year. 

Candidates from high schools which are on the certificate list of 
the New England College Entrance Examination Board may be ad- 
mitted to any of the State normal schools without examination in 
any subject required for admission in which they have attained a 
standing of B, or 80 per cent., as certified by the principal of the 
school. 

Beginning with 1908, candidates from high schools not in the 
college certificate list may be admitted on similar conditions, if the 
high schools are approved for the purpose by the Board of Edu- 
cation. 

High schools desiring this approval should correspond with the 
secretary of the Board. 

French may be taken in the preliminary examinations. 

Blank forms for certificates may be obtained at the office of 
the State Board of Education, State House, Boston, or at the 
school. 

(4b) Written Examination. 

The examinations will embrace papers on the following groups 
of subjects, a single paper with a maximum time allowance of 
two hours to cover each of groups L, II. and IV., and a single 
paper with a maximum time allowance of one hour to cover each 
of groups III. and V. (five papers with a maximum time allow- 
ance of eight /mars) : — 

• I. Language. — (a) English, with its grammar and litera- 
ture, and (b) cither Latin or French. 

II. Mathematics. — (a) Algebra and (b) plane geometry. 

TIL United Stale* History.' 1 — The history and civil govern- 
ments of Massachusetts and the United States, with related 



1 No substitute will be accepted. 



12 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 

geography and so much of English history as is directly con- 
tributory to a knowledge of United States history. 

I V. Science. — -(a) 5 Physiology and hygiene, and (6) and 
(c) any two of the following, — physics, chemistry, physical 
geography and botany, provided one of the two selected is either 
physics or chemistry. 

V. Drawing and Music. — (a) Elementary mechanical and 
freehand drawing with any one of the topics, — form, color and 
arrangement, and (b) music. 

(5) Oral Examination. 

Each candidate will be required to read aloud in the presence 
of the examiners. He will also he questioned orally cither upon 
some of the foregoing subjects or upon other matters within his 
experience, in order that the examiners may gain some impres- 
sion about his personal characteristics and his use of language, 
as well as to give him an opportunity to furnish any evidences of 
qualification that might not otherwise become known to them. 

General Requirements in English 'for All Examinations. 

\o candidates will be accepted whose written English is nota- 
bly deficient in clear and accurate expression, spelling, punctua- 
tion, idiom <>r division of paragraphs, or whose spoken English 

exhibits faults so serious us to make H inexpedient for the normal 

school to attempt their correction. The candidate's English, 
therefore, in nil oral and written examinations will be subject 

to the requirements implied in the statement here mode, and 
marked accordingly. 

Special Directions for Written Examinations. 
Group I. — Language. 

(a) English. — The subjects of the examination will he the 
same as those generally agreed upon by the colleges and high 
technical schools of New England. 

The list of books for study prescribed by the Commission of 
Colleges in New England for 1909 1!)11 is as follows: — 

Shakespeare's Macbeth; Milton's Minor Poems; Burk< 

1 No substitute will be accepted. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 13 

Speech on Conciliation with America, or Washington's Farewell 
Address and Webster's First Bunker Hill Oration; Macaulay's 
Life of Johnson, or Carlyle's Essay on Bums. 

The purpose of the examination is to discover (1) whether the 
student has acquired good habits of study, (2) whether he has 
formed any standards of literary judgment, (3) whether he 
has become discerning of literary merit, and (-±) what acquaint- 
ance he has with standard English and American writers. 

The examination will take such a form that students who 
have followed other than the prescribed lines of reading may be 
able to satisfy the examiners on the above points. 

(b) Either Latin or French. — The translation at sight of 
simple prose or verse, with questions on the usual forms and 
ordinary constructions, and the writing of simple prose based 
in part or in full on the passage selected. 

Group II. — Mathematics. 

(a) The elements of algebra through affected quadratic equa- 
tions. 

(b) The elements of plane geometry. 

While there is no formal examination in arithmetic, the im- 
portance of a practical working acquaintance with its principles 
and processes cannot be too strongly emphasized. The candi- 
date's proficiency in this subject will be incidentally tested in its 
applications to other subjects. 

In geometry, the candidate's preparatory study should include 
independent solutions and demonstrations, — work that shall 
throw him upon his own resources; and his ability to do such 
work will be tested in the 1 examination. An acquaintance with 
typical solid forms is also important, — -enough, at least, to 
enable the candidate 1«> name and define them and to recognize 
(he relations borne to them by the lines, planes, angles and fig- 
ures of plane geometry. 

Group III. United States History. 
Any school text-book on United States history will enable can- 
didates to meel this requirement, provided they study enough of 
geography to illumine the history, and make themselves familiar 



14 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM . 

with the grander features of government in Massachusetts and 
the United States. Collateral reading in United States histon 
is strongly advised — also in English history so far as this his- 
tory bears conspicuously on that of the United States. 

A course in history and civics in the senior year in the high 
school is strongly recommended. 

Group IV. — Science. 

(a) Physiology and Hygiene. — The chief elementary facts 
of anatomy, the general functions of the various organs, the 
more obvious rules of health, and the more striking effects of 
alcoholic drinks, narcotics and stimulants upon those addicted to 
their use. 

(b and c) Any Two of the Following Sciences, — Physics, 
Chemistry, Botany and Physical Geography, provided One of the 
Two is either Physics or Chemistry. — The chief elementary 
facts of the subjects selected, so far as they may be presented in 
the courses usually devoted to them in good high schools. It 
will be a distinct advantage to the candidate if his preparation 
includes a certain amount of individual laboratory work. 

A laboratory note-book, with the teacher's endorsement that it 
is a true record of the candidate's work, will be accepted as par- 
tial evidence of attainments in the science with which it deals. 
The original record should be so well kept as to make copying 
unnecessary. 

Group V. — Drawing and Music. 

(a) Drawing. — Mechanical and free-hand drawing, — 
enough to enable the candidate to draw a simple object, like a 
box or a pyramid or a cylinder, with plan and elevation to scale, 
and to make a free-hand sketch of the same in perspective. Also 
any one of the three topics, — form, color and arrangement. 

(b) Music. — Such elementary facts as an instructor should 
know in teaching singing in the schools, — including major and 
minor keys, simple two, three, four and six part measures, the 
fractional divisions of the pulse or beat, chromatics, the right 
use of the foregoing elements in practice, and the translation 
into musical notation of simple melodies or time phrases sung or 
played. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 15 



Division of Examinations. 

Candidates may be admitted to a preliminary examination a 
year in advance of their final examination, provided they offer 
themselves in one or more of the following groups, each group to 
be presented in full: — ■ 



I. 1 


French. 


II. 


Mathematics. 


III. 


United States history, 


IV. 


Science. 


V. 


Drawing and music. 



Preliminary examinations can be taken in June only. 

Every candidate for a preliminary examination must present 
a certificate of preparation in the group or groups chosen, or in 
the subjects thereof. (See blank at end of this catalogue.) 

Candidates for the final or complete examinations are ear- 
nestly advised to present themselves, as far as practicable, in 
June. Division of the final or complete examinations between 
June and September is permissible, but it is important both for 
the normal school and for the candidate that the work laid out 
for the September examinations, which so closely precede the 
opening of the school, shall be kept down to a minimum. 

Equivalents. 

Persons desiring to enter the school, whose course of study lias 
been equivalent to, but not identical with, the requirements for 
admission, are advised to correspond with the principal. Each 
case will be considered upon its merits, and in deciding the ques- 
tion of admission there will be a serious effort to give all the 
credit that is due. Experience in teaching, according in its 
amount and kind, is regarded a- very valuable. 

1 The group known as /. Language must be reserved t"<>r the final examinations, with 
the exception of French, as indicated above. It will doubtless be found generally 'ad- 
visable in praol ice that the group known as / 1". Sri- nee should also be reserved. 



18 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



the success or failure of normal school students as teachers always 
involve a greater or less degree of uncertainty, it is nevertheless 
felt that the school owes its chief responsibility to the Common- 
wealth. Its duty is not fully discharged by the application of 
academic tests; certain persona] qualities are so essential and 
their absence so fatal to success in teaching that the candidate 
for graduation must be judged in part from the standpoint of 
personality. 

It is the aim of the school — and this is insisted upon year 
by year with increasing strictness — not to bestow its diploma 
upon those who are likely to be unable in ordinary school work to 
use the English language with ease and correctness. The power 
of the student to teach, so far as that can be ascertained and 
judged, is of course an essential element in the problem, and 
those who are manifestly unable to do so will not be allowed to 
graduate, whatever their academic proficiency may be. 

THE MODEL AND PRACTICE DEPARTMENT. 

[Mr. Churbuck, Principal; Miss Paine, Supervisor of Practice 

Teaching.] 

In co-operation with the school committee of the city of Salem, 
the State normal school maintains in its building a complete - 
tern of model and practice schools, beginning with a kinder- 
garten, and fitting pupils for the local high school. The system 
also includes kindergarten and primary classes in the Bertram 
school building and a model ungraded school in Marblehead. 
The teachers are nominated by the principal of the normal 
school, with the approval of the Board of Visitors, and they 
are elected by the city school committee. The assignment of 
pupils is in the hands of the local authorities, so that the children 
do not constitute a picked company. 

The aim has been to secure in these schools as nearly as possible 
the actual conditions existing in public schools of a high class. 
It is an essential part of the plan upon which they are conducted 
that they be kept at a reasonable size. The schoolrooms them- 
selves are of ample dimensions, well lighted, thoroughly venti- 
lated, furnished with approved furniture and other appliances 
for work, and provided with sanitary conveniences of the best 




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STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



19 



kind. By the generosity and interest of many parents they are 
also provided with beautiful decorations. 

In planning the instruction in these schools the aim is to con- 
nect it as closely as possible with the work in the normal school, 
to the end that the methods of teaching here may exemplify the 
theory in which the normal school students are taught. In the 
model and practice school located in the normal school building, 
a large part of the instruction is either supervised or actually 
given by normal school instructors. 

The critic teacher devotes her entire time to supervising the 
normal school students in their relations to the practice schools. 
Her intimate acquaintance with the work of the schools in their 
various departments and her duties as a supervisor make it easy 
to guard in the most efficient manner the interests of the children. 
The regular teachers are selected solely by reason of their effi- 
ciency, and the facilities whose use is made possible by the con- 
nection between the practice schools and the normal school are 
put to their greatest service. 

Besides the regular observation and practice teaching, oppor- 
tunity is provided for those students who intend to teach in the 
first grade to observe in the kindergartens; and arrangements 
have also been made for a few students to gain a limited amount 
of experience in teaching in the upper grades of the Pickering 
Grammar School in this city. 



ELEMENTARY COURSE. 
Junior Year. 



Language and grammar. 

Literature, 

Reading, . 

Geometry, 

Algebra, 

Psychology, 

Zoology, ) 

_> / half vear each. . 

Botanv, J 



half vear each. 



Chemistry. 



Physic-. 
Physiography. 
Drawing, . 



half vear each. 



Periods Weekly. 

2 

2 

1 

3 
o 



20 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



Manual training, 

Music, 

Gymnastics, 1 



Periods Weekly. 
1 

2 
2 



Senior Year. 



Pedagogy, 

Language and grammar, . 

Literature, 



Reading, .... 

History, .... 

Geography, 

Numbers and arithmetic . 

Nature study and physiology, 

Drawing, .... 

Manual training, 

Music, .... 

Gymnastics, 1 



25 

Periods Weekly. 

3 
2 
1 
2 
2 
3 
2 
2 
2 
1 
2 
2 



24 
AIM AND SCOPE OF THE COURSE OF STUDY. 

Literature. 

[Miss Peet.] 
Literature is the expression in an art form of that which is of 
vital importance in the development of character, — a knowledge 
of human personality in its manifold moods and various rela- 
tionships. The endeavor of the junior work is to give the stu- 
dent a broad outlook into the field, first, through a study of 
typical masterpieces, lyrical, dramatic and narrative, and, in 
the second place, through the study of American literature 
chronologically considered. The aim throughout is not only to 
bring the class into close and appreciative contact with the best 
literature, but to give to the student those things which are of 
importance to a teacher, — ability to judge literature on its 

1 In order that the health of the students in the normal schools may remain unim- 
paired throughout their course, and that the graduates may be prepared to care for the 
physical culture of pupils in their own schools, the Board of Education has voted that 
at least two hours a week of class work in physical training be required of all students 
in the normal schools throughout their course. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 21 

merits and to interpret to others its beauties of thought and 
form. The senior work consists in studies in children's litera- 
ture, and in discussions of the aims and methods of teaching the 
subject. The class has continual practice in the selection, organ- 
ization and presentation of material. 

English Language. 

[Miss Learoyd.] 

The study of language is continued throughout the two years. 
As the students come from many different schools, their prep- 
aration is varied. It is therefore necessary during the first year 
to consider the essential qualities of language, in order to lay a 
uniform foundation for the intelligent discussion of the work in 
language in the lower grades. 

The subjects taken are considered chiefly from the standpoint 
of the teacher. Suggestions are given for planning and pre- 
senting subjects to a class, and opportunity is given for practice 
before the normal school class. Frequent oral and written 
criticisms are required. The students are expected gradually to 
assume the responsibility of the work in the classroom. 

As far as possible, the work in English is associated with that 
in other branches, and the student is made to feel the importance 
of a skilful use of language both in speech and in writing. 
Those who are especially deficient in knowledge or in practice 
are expected to give the subject extra attention. 

In the second year the teaching of English is considered. 
Good books on the subject are read by the class, for the purpose 
of gaining a high ideal and inspiration for the work. A course 
of study in general language work is suggested, to be used as a 
basis for class discussion and as a guide for individual work in 
planning different types of lessons. The best order of topics in 
grammar is considered, and exercises are planned and given. 

The observation of the work in the practice school serves to 
emphasize and illustrate points discussed. 



22 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



Reading. 

[Miss Rogers.] 

During the junior year selections from standard authors arc 
studied and read orally. Three purposes are kept in view: to 
develop the power of getting the thought of an author, to create 
a desire to reveal it to others, and to acquire skill in its ex- 
pression. 

In the senior year ai lent ion is centered upon the pedagogical 
aspect of the subject. Methods of teaching reading in public 
schools, literature for children, story-telling, and dramatization 
are some of the subjects considered. The aim is to give students 
a working knowledge of the whole subject, and to arouse the feel- 
ing that their work as teachers of reading is incomplete unless 
their pupils have not only power to read fluently, but also a taste 
for good books. 

Elementary Latin. 
[Miss Martin.] 

The modern idea of gaining the much-needed additional time 
for Latin in the public schools by extending the course down- 
ward into the grades is both a natural and a reasonable one; 
and the introduction of this study into the last year of the 
grammar school curriculum has been carried into effect in ma un- 
representative schools. It is fitting that the normal school take 
note of this fact, and provide means for training such of Its 
students as may desire to prepare themselves for work in this 
line. 

In accordance with this view, a class has been organized for 
the consideration of methods of teaching the "beginner's Latin." 
Membership is optional. The class is open to special students, 
and to students of the second or third year whose general stand- 
in.-' warrants their undertaking the additional work. 

In the weekly recitation period the ultimate purpose of the 
study of Latin is noted, the results to be secured in the first 
year's work are made clear, and the means of attaining these 
results receive full discussion. The importance of drill is easily 
apparent; indeed, the work of the teacher of first-year Latin 
may almost be summed up in that word. Hence the necessity 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 23 

of a thorough discussion of the various modes of drill calculated 
to secure the desired results, viz., the gaining of a vocabulary, 
the mastery of forms and the acquisition of the more important 
principles of syntax. Various devices and aids, in the shape of 
drill cards, drill books, etc., are provided, and these are carefully 
examined and discussed. 

The leading modern text-books covering first-year work are at 
hand, and detailed study is made of the different types. Enough 
lessons are worked out in each book to bring the student-teacher 
into sympathy with the spirit of the book, and give him an intelli- 
gent appreciation of the author's method. The more difficult 
forms and constructions receive special attention, and the com- 
parative method of study rendered possible hy the number of 
different text-books available is emphasized throughout the 
course. 

Arithmetic. 

[Miss Peet.] 

There is an arithmetic of books and one of actual concrete 
situations in life. When the first is taught to the exclusion of 
the latter, the pupil has but a poor incentive for the study, and 
gains but little ability in the application of his knowledge. To 
avoid the narrowness of such a training the arithmetic is brought 
into contact with the activities of the student. It is based upon 
manual training, nature study, geography, and other interests 
of the school, home and community life. The work with the 
training class covers the senior year. During the first half of the 
year the class discusses the principles underlying the number 
work of the primary school and works out their application 
through teaching exercises. During the second half of the year 
the class reviews advanced arithmetic and develops methods of 
teaching it. Books are used for reference, but the endeavor here, 
as elsewhere, is to find the arithmetic of the actual office, shop 
and home. 

Geometry. 
[Miss Martin.] 

The course is planned to include (1) a review of demonstra- 
tive geometry and (2) a detailed study of concrete or observa- 
tional geometry. The two are carried along together. 



24 . STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 

In the demonstrative work special attention is given to secur- 
ing exactness in reasoning and in expression and to helping stu- 
dents towards that mastery of the subject which may reasonably 
be expected of teachers in the elementary schools. In this con- 
nection the origin and development of the science are made a 
matter of study, and the scope and plan of the ordinary text- 
book in geometry are noted. The general object in this part of 
the work is to confirm and supplement and make exact the stu- 
dent's knowledge, to broaden his outlook, arouse fresh interest, 
and awaken a sense of the teacher's responsibility towards the 
subject. 

The course in concrete geometry develops the elementary defi- 
nitions, and such of the simpler truths of the science as lend 
themselves to objective treatment. A topical outline in the bands 
of students furnishes a basis for discussion of methods of work 
ami the selection and arrangement of material. The leading 
text-books in this department are reviewed, and to some extent 
practically tested. Laboratory work and field work are promi- 
nent features. The general aim is to put students in possession 
of approved methods of teaching in elementary schools those 
parts of geometry which by general consent are adapted therefor. 

Algebra. 

[Miss Martin.] 

The general purpose is to review and supplement the student's 
knowledge of the subject-matter, and to establish clear and sim- 
ple methods of teaching the more elementary topics. This in- 
volves (1) a thorough study of the processes underlying the 
solution of simple equations and the simpler forms of quadratics, 
(2) the discussion of methods of solution of equations of these 
types, and (3) the discussion of problems involving such equa- 
tions, together with devices for making real to a class of begin- 
ners the conditions of a problem. The aim is to develop facility 
in algebraic operations, to give an intelligent grasp of the sub- 
ject-matter, and to form the habit, of regarding it from the 
teacher's point of view. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 25 



United States History. 

[Miss Deane.] 

The study of United States history is included in the second 
year of the course. The work is planned with two general aims 
in view : ( 1 ) the review and establishment of the essential facts 
and principles of American and allied English history, treated 
from the academic standpoint; and (2) the consideration of the 
material in its adaptation to the elementary school. Effort is 
made to broaden the students' acquaintance with authoritative 
historical works and to aid him in the selection and handling of 
material. To this end, special presentations of topics requiring 
research have an important place in the plan of study. 

The elements of civil government are considered from the 
standpoint of their actual operation rather than from that of 
theory, thus necessitating attention to current political events. 
Book study of the principles of government must be supple- 
mented by familiarity with concrete examples. 

Chemistry and Physics. 

[Mr. Adams.] 

The aim of the work in these subjects is not to turn out trained 
chemists or physicists, or to prepare students for college exam- 
inations, but to lead them to acquire the power of accurate ob- 
servation, correct expression, and clear thinking; to train them 
to follow directions and to acquire habits of carefulness, accuracy, 
neatness, independence and originality. The greater part of 
the time will be given to the consideration of those facts and 
principles which have practical application in common life, or 
will aid in the interpretation of the various phenomena related 
to the other subjects in the course. 

Special emphasis is placed upon the method of teaching by 
experiment, and the art of correct questioning. 

Means. — The ends enumerated are secured by a course of ex- 
periments selected and arranged so thai nm>tof the work can be 
done by each individual. Each stud rut is provided with a note- 
book, and lias a separate compartment at the laboratory bench. 



'2i\ STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



The chemical laboratory is equipped with slate tables, hot and 
cold water and individual fume closets. Both laboratories con- 
nect with a large lecture room, provided with roller shutters for 
darkening the room, and an electric lantern. 

The students have considerable practice in presentation work 
before their classmates, and in examining them on the experi- 
mental work, and thus acquire confidence to stand before others, 
and skill in directing their thinking. 

Most of the work is qualitative, but some quantitative experi- 
ments arc taken, to afford practice in weighing and measuring. 

Students are constantly encouraged to consider their work 
from the teacher's point of view. This gives professional value 
to the course, which cannot be obtained by work that is wholly 
academic. 

Physiography. 
[Mr. Gushing — Mr. Adams.] 

The course in physiography is made to include enough of 
astronomy for the student to gain a clear notion of the relation. 
of the earth to the other members of the solar system and the 
universe; of mineralogy, to interpret the physiographic history 
of parts of the earth from the study of bed rocks; of historical 
geology, to appreciate that the earth, with its animal and vege- 
table life, is an evolving organism, and that the present condi- 
tion- show one stage of that evolution; of physical geography, to 
understand the typical processes affecting the earth's surface and 
the resulting land forms. The object of the course, other than 
general culture, is to build up the background for the earth 
sciences that are taught in the elementary schools. It is made 
preparatory to the course in geography that follows the next year. 

Field trips and laboratory work take an important part in 
this work. The immediate surroundings offer diversified ma- 
terial for field work. The school is well equipped with a large 
astronomical telescope, with individual and exhibition rock and 
mineral specimens, and a museum of -elected fossils. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 27 



Botany. 

[Miss Goldsmith.] 

The study of plant life is undertaken with two ends in view, — 
to arouse students to an enthusiastic observation of plants, and 
to give them a thorough foundation for the study of nature with 
children. The evolution of plants, the life history of types and 
the relations of plants to their surroundings are the general 
subjects considered. 

As soon as possible the students are expected to work out for 
themselves the life history of a plant. To aid them in this 
work, laboratory manuals, an abundance of good reference books, 
diagrams and pictures, microscopes and prepared slides are fur- 
nished. Students are urged to gather specimens whenever it 
is possible. Some time, outside of the recitation periods, is ex- 
pected to be given each week to laboratory or field work. Occa- 
sional field trips are intended to arouse enthusiasm in the study 
of plants, and to show the necessity of an intimate acquaintance 
with plants in their natural surroundings. 

Geography. 

[Mr. Cushing.] 

In this course the fundamental principles of the science are 
evolved from the study of the home locality, so that the under- 
standing of the mutual relations of man and his environment 
becomes observational knowledge. The method of instruction is 
such as to tend to develop the reasoning power of the student as 
the facts of geography are studied. 

Much time is spent in interpreting the materials found in text- 
books on the subject in elementary schools, in map reading, in 
the use of diagrams, models, pictures, specimens and the other 
geographic helps. 

An intensive study of the pedagogy of geography occupies a 
period near the end of the course, after the students have gained 
abundant illustrative material and experience in the previous 
work of the class and in the practice school. The place of geog- 
raphy in the school curriculum is justified and the part it plays 



28 STATE. NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



in reaching the ends of education is defined. A graded course 
of study is worked out on this basis. 

The school p<< special advantages for geographic stud v. 

Salem ha? diversified land forms which determine varied indus- 
trial activities. An excellent harbor and near by rivers show well 
their influence over human activities. A geography garden is de- 
veloped in the sp^ng by the normal and practice school pupils. 
The department has one of the besl geography museums in the 
State. 

Zoology. 
[Miss Goldsmith.] 

The purpose of the work in zoology is to give the student- as 
clear an idea of evolution as is possible in the time allowed, and 
to lay a broad foundation for a comprehensive understanding of 
the study of human physiology. For the accomplishment of 
this purpose the course begins with the lowest forms of animal 
life, and continues with the more complex organisms in the order 
of their development. In each >tage of development the charac- 
teristics of type forms are emphasized. Allied forms are con- 
sidered in connection with the type forms. 

In the laborator} r , by dissection and careful observation, both 
external and internal organs are studied with reference to their 
structure, position, relation and function, together with the 
special office of each in the animal economy. Additional knowl- 
edge is gained by reading and drawing. There are frequent 
discussions of the problems of heredity, of environment and 
adaptation to environment, and of the survival of the fittest. 
These lead to a clearer insight into the forces at work which in- 
fluence the life and structure of the various forms of the animal 
kingdom. The fine collection of specimen- at the Peabody 
Academy of Science affords unusual facilities for the pursuit 
of this branch of study. Tn the spring, opportunities are given 
to become familiar witli the common birds and their songs. 

The aim of the work in zoology is to fit the students to lead 
children to love and care for God's creatures; to observe their 
habits more closely, thereby learning lessons in industry, perse- 
verence, patience and fidelity; and to give them a keener appre- 
ciation of the wonders and the beauty of the abundant life with 
which we are surrounded. 



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STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 29 



Nature Study. 

[Miss Warren.] 

From the courses in botany and zoology of the junior year the 
pupils have gained some knowledge of the theory of evolution, 
and have learned many important facts concerning both plant 
and animal life. 

The aim of the work in nature study is to find a way in which 
to interest the child in the life of the wonderful world about 
him, and through this growing appreciation to awaken the desire 
to find out things for himself; also, to correlate the knowledge 
gained by the study of his environment with his work in litera- 
ture and art. 

The child must first see things before he can reason about 
them. Unconsciously through this reasoning valuable lessons 
are learned, and by a better understanding of the great truths 
of nature, he gains a broader conception of life. 

The value of the work depends upon the spirit in which it 
is undertaken. The habit of observation and inquiry will lead 
to a sympathy with nature that will be not only a source of 
happiness, but will tend to an enrichment of life. 

The School Garden. 

A part of the school grounds is devoted to a garden, in which 
the students of the normal school have an opportunity not only 
to plant a small plot of their own and care for it, but also to 
supervise the work of children from the practice school. Thus 
they learn to make practical the ideas they have learned con- 
cerning plant life, and will be able to establish gardens in schools 
where they may teach. The work is under the supervision of 
Miss Warren in the normal school and Mr. Churbuck and other 
teachers in the practice school. 

The work in the garden is a means toward an end. The 
teachers have an opportunity to make nature study practical, 
and to encourage the children to have gardens of their own. in 
order that they may have interests at home. They promote ;i 
spirit of co-operation and helpfulness among the children, 1<>v- 
alty to the school in making the whole garden attractive, ami 



30 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 

generosity in contributing a portion of their produce to hospi- 
tals. 

The garden furnishes material for work in the schoolroom. 
In arithmetic, there are practical problems of expenditure of 
money for material and labor and of income from products 
raised, and measurements to be made in planning and Laying 
out the garden. In language, subjects for composition and dis- 
cussion are presented in the preparation for the outdoor work, 
and as a result of experience gained in the garden. In manual 
training, there are problems to work out, such as tools, frames 
to support vines, cold frames, etc. Knowledge of moisture, 
soils, relation of plants and animals, food products, forms a 
basis for practical geography. There are plans of the garden 
to be drawn, vegetables in different stages and flowers for the 
study of form and color, flowers to be arranged artistically in 
vases, effective arrangement of flowers in the garden to be con- 
sidered. By thus grouping much of the indoor work in the 
spring about the garden, the teacher makes the garden a natural 
center from which other lines of work radiate. 

Manual Arts. 

[Mr. Whitney — Mr. Ried.] 
The subject of drawing presents itself in various phases. 
Structural drawing involves the making and reading of struc- 
tural drawings, and the ability to handle tools and to construct 
the objects planned and designed. Under this head are taught 
sewing, weaving, and work in leather, metal and wood. Sewing 
as tan- 1 it in the grades of the practice school includes the mak- 
ing of both useful and decorative articles. The design and deco- 
ration are always original work on the part of the pupil and the 
direct result of the teaching of color and design. Weaving in- 
cludes basketry, the making of rugs, hammocks, school bags, 
cushion covers, portieres and other hangings, with the applica- 
tion of woven or stenciled designs. Under the head of leather 
work the pupils study the different kinds of leather, their prepa- 
ration and use in manual work. Structural design is applied 
to any articles which the pupils may construct, not for mere 
prettiness but for its value as an article of good design. The 




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STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 31 

same plan is followed in the work in metal. The woodwork 
includes the making of a great variety of articles : trapezes, 
swings, teeters and other apparatus for the outdoor gymnasium ; 
fences, lattices and trellises for the school gardens • screens, book 
racks, trays and many other articles for use in the schoolroom 
and the home. This line of industry develops a wide range of 
thought, originality, imagination and activity. It renders a 
drawing intelligible through experience, cultivates the reason- 
ing power and manual skill, and trains the eye and the hand. 

Decorative or enrichment drawing deals with the history of 
art, with the principles of design, and with the application of 
these principles to every possible line of constructive and deco- 
rative work. It involves the study of the theory of color and 
its applications to structural and decorative purposes, and in- 
cludes the planning of harmonious schemes of house and school 
furnishing, home decoration and dress. 

Appearance drawing cultivates the ability to represent familiar 
objects of all kinds and forms. Landscape sketching and com- 
position are studied, and field trips with the sketchbook as an 
important factor are not unusual. This topic includes nature 
study in its broad sense and illustrative drawing in every line 
of school work, the mediums used being pen and ink, water color, 
lead pencil and crayon. The students make both scientific draw- 
ings and pictorial representations of fruits, flowers, foliage, dif- 
ferent stages of plant growth, birds, butterflies and moths, sea 
shells, mosses, etc. Language and literature afford a broad field 
for illustrative sketching and for picture study. Geography and 
history require frequent pictorial expression and a ready re- 
sponse of the hand to the thought of both teacher and pupil. 
The pupil who can illustrate a problem in arithmetic, algebra 
or geometry makes the facts in the problem much more definite 
and vital to himself and to the class. 

It is the constant effort of the department to make itself 
helpful in meeting the problems of school life and to comple- 
ment the work of the other departments. Each year is given 
a course of lessons in free blackboard sketching, which is 
a very important accomplishment of the grade teacher. 
Such work awakens interest, holds the attention and cultivates 



32 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 

a desire <>n tlie part of the child to express himself in the Bame 

free and spontaneous manner. 

Occasional lecture- are given by the State supervisor of draw- 
ing ami others upon important subjects influencing drawing in 
the public schools, and upon more general topics in art. T 
Lectures have a decided influence upon the pupils, and create 
an interest in many lines of art study and industrial tram 
To thc-< is added a short course on the history of art. dealing 
with the various schools of architecture, sculpture and painting, 
from Egypt to the Renaissance. When possible, visits to the 
Museum of Fine Arts arc made for study and review. 

Each student is required to observe the work of the super- 
visor and of the teachers in the grades of the practice school. 
t<» present illustrated reports on these observations, ami t.» give 

- in- in this work under supervision and criticism. Outlit 
of work for the grades in the practice school are arranged from 
month to month, and the normal school pupils observe their ap- 
plication in the work with children. Students who complete 
the course should be able to plan and arrange adequate outlines 
of work for use in their own teaching, or to follow intelligently 
the outline of a supervisor. 

Music. 

[Mr. Archibald.] 

The work in this departmenl i- designed to enable Btudents 
to teach Mich principles of music a- will apply to instruction in 
this subject in the Beveral grades of the public schools. 

Tune, time, technique and the aesthetics of music are con- 
sidered. The exemplification of these Bubjeci (served in 
the model xhools. and practice in these line- Forded the 
student under the guidance of the regular grade teachers. 

One period weekly is given to genera] exercises in m 
when thf following Bubjects are considered: — 

( a i The principles of conducting, as applied to chorus Bing- 
ing and general school work: also practice in the same. 

(b) Musical appreciation through the listening to good music 
performed by the Btudents, and the Btudy of Famous compos 
and musical form. 

(c) Chorus singing in preparation for the graduation exer- 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 33 



Physiology and Hygiene. 

[Miss Warren.] 

The work in physiology being a continuation of the work 
in biology, the same general plan is followed. The main point 
in the consideration of the subject is hygiene. 

To know how to care for the human body that the best results 
may be obtained, it is necessary: — 

1. To consider it as a whole. 

2. To become familiar with the functions of the organs and 
with their mutual dependence and co-operation. 

The laboratory method is continued in this branch of study. 
The dissection of a mammal as a complete organism, and of in- 
dividual organs of different animals, throws much light upon 
the structure and functions of corresponding organs in man. 

A life-sized manikin, a human skeleton and microscopic slides 
are valuable aids in the work of anatomy. 

Each of the following systems, the respiratory, the circulatory, 
the digestive, the excretory, the nervous, the muscular and the 
osseous, is studied in detail. The intimate relation of each sys- 
tem to the others, and the importance of keeping each in a 
healthy condition to ensure an harmonious whole, are strongly 
emphasized. In addition, attention is given to the special senses, 
particularly to the structure and hygiene of the eye and ear. 
The effect of alcohol and. tobacco upon the human system is 
taken up in connection with the consideration of the organs 
and their functions. 

One practical application of the knowledge obtained in the 
class room is the intelligent treatment of emergency cases. Some 
instruction in regard to symptoms is given, in order to convey 
to the minds of the students an estimate of the general appear- 
ance of the more common diseases. This will help them, in 
their future work as teachers, to detect conditions of doubtful 
health, and to comprehend intelligently directions given by school 
physicians. 

Special stress is laid upon the hygienic effects of clothing, 
bathing, food, sleep, recreation and rest. As the body is the 
instrument through which the mind finds expression, a better 



34 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM, 

understanding of its mechanism and of hygiene is very im- 
portant for those who are to take up the teacher's profession, 
that they may be instrumental in helping the young to a more 
harmonious and effective physical development. 

Physical Training. 

[Miss Warren — Miss Kogers.] 

In the work of physical training the Swedish system of gym- 
nastics is employed. Physical exercise has a two-fold purpose; 
it invigorates the body and it relieves mental tension. 

The floor work includes all the fundamental positions of the 
body, as bending, twisting, jumping, running and marching. It 
is supplemented by the use of apparatus, which gives added in- 
terest and enthusiasm to the work, and a greater opportunity 
for muscular development. The gymnasium is provided with 
stall bars and benches, double booms, jumping standards, verti- 
cal ropes, a Swedish ladder and a horse. The work is varied 
occasionally by gymnastic games, which are calculated to de- 
velop self-control, precision, dexterity and concerted action. 
IMiythmic movement is a strong feature of the work. During 
the senior year opportunities are given the students for con- 
ducting gymnastic exercises as practice in teaching. 

Association in the gymnasium promotes a social spirit, which 
serves as a bond of union, and tends to give a healthy impetus 
to the fulfilling of the requirements in other departments of 
study. The aim of the work is not only to help the student to 
gain a more intelligent mastery of the body, but also to train 
the mental and moral faculties. 

The vitality and usefulness of the human body are also fur- 
thered by correct carriage, proper breathing and regular bodily 
exercise. Whatever, therefore, conduces to develop the chest, 
straighten the spine, purify the blood and distribute it to the 
various organs, and to improve the persona] appearance gen- 
erally, is a matter of vital importance. 

We cannot too strongly emphasize the fact that a sound mind 
in a sound body is a prime requisite for success and effectiveness 
in any department of life. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 35 



Psychology. 

[Miss Goldsmith.] 

The course in psychology extends throughout the junior year. 
The aim is to secure a clear understanding of the fundamental 
laws which govern mental activity, as well as to develop a larger 
sympathy with human life as a whole and an appreciation of the 
conditions existing in immature minds. Careful attention is 
given to the processes by means of which knowledge is acquired 
and elaborated, the sources of knowledge, both general and psy- 
chological, and the function and development of the menta] 
faculties. Since the work is intended to be of practical value 
rather than of merely theoretical interest, illustrations and ap- 
plications are demanded throughout the course. 

Pedagogy. 

[Mr. Pitman.] 

The course in pedagogy extends throughout the senior year. 
Its chief aim is to develop an understanding of the principles of 
education as derived from the study of psychology in the junior 
year, and of their application to school organization and govern- 
ment and to the art of teaching. The course comprises a study 
of the various educational agencies; of the educational values of 
the several subjects of instruction, and of their interrelations ; 
of school organization and management; of the physical condi- 
tions of the school; and of the hygiene of the schoolroom. The 
work in the model schools is done in connection with this course, 
and the observations and experiences of the students are drawn 
upon extensively to illustrate the classroom discussion-. 

The course also includes a study of the lives of the great edu- 
cational reformers and of their contributions to the science of 
education. This work is largely biographical, and is devoted 
chiefly to a critical study of a few of the leading educators of 
modern times. 

A portion of the course is also devoted to a consideration of 
the historical development and the characteristic features of 
the Massachusetts school system, and a sufficient knowledge 
of the school laws is imparted to make the stud. Mils familiar with 
the rights and duties of teachers. 



36 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



Teachers now in the service who are intending to enter the. 
school to take a year's special work should make a thorough 
study of James's Briefer ('nurse in Psychology, Halleck's Psy- 
chology and Psychic Culture, or some other book of equal scope. 

COMMERCIAL DEPARTMENT. 
Entrance Requirements. 

(a) For Regular Students. — The requirements for admis- 
sion to the regular course of two years will be the same as for 
students who apply for admission to the elementary course, ex- 
cept that graduates of commercial courses in approved high 
schools will also be eligible. Certificates will be accepted in 
lieu of examination in those subjects in which candidates have 
attained a rank of not less than B, or eighty per cent., and ex- 
aminations will be given in other subjects. 

While the standards for scholarship and efficiency, in this de- 
partment are nominally the same as those of the elementary 
course, it must be remembered that its students are preparing 
themselves to teach in high schools, and no one will be allowed to 
continue the work who does not give promise of becoming a suc- 

3ful teacher in secondary schools. 

Students who complete this course will receive special di- 
plomas. 

(b) For Special Students. — A special condensed course of 
one vcar will be offered to graduates of colleges, normal schools 
and private commercial schools, and to teachers of experience. 

Special students who satisfactorily complete an approved 
course of study will receive an appropriate certificate. 





Regular Course. 






Junior Year. 


Hours per Week. 


English, 


..... 


2 


Psychology, 


. 


2 


Geography, 


. . . 


2 


History and civics, . 




2 


Gymnastics, 1 


... 


2 


Bookkeeping, 


..... 


5 


Commercial arithmetic, 





2 




1 See note, p. 20. 





STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



37 



Hours per Week. 

Penmanship, .......... 2 

Stenography, .......... 5 

Typewriting, . 6 

30 
Senior Year. 

Hours per Week. 

English, 2 

Pedagogy, .......... 3 

Gymnastics, 1 .......... 2 

Bookkeeping, .......... 4 

Penmanship, .......... 2 

Commercial law, ■•.),,« , 

n . , , } halt year each, .... 3 

Commercial geography, . ) J 

Economics, . ) 

TT . „ > halt year each, . . . . . 3 

History oi commerce, ) 

Stenography, .......... 4 

Commercial correspondence, . . . . • . . 1 

Typewriting, .......... 6 

30 
Special Course. 2 

One Year. 

Pedagogy, 3 

Gymnastics, 1 .......... 2 

English, 2 

Bookkeeping, .......... 5 

Commercial arithmetic, ........ 2 

Penmanship, .......... 2 

General geography, . |, half ae , . . . 2 
Commercial correspondence, ) 

Commercial geography, ) 

~ -it- halt year each, .... 3 

Commercial law, . ) 

Economics, . ) 

TT . , « ( naJr vear each, 3 

History ot commerce, \ 

Stenography, 5 

Typewriting, 9 

38 

1 See note, p. 20. 

2 Candidates for this course must have already completed a sufficient amount of the 
work prescribed to reduce their programs to a maximum of thirty hours per week. 



38 STATE XORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



Pedagogy. 

[ .Mr. Pitman.] 

Pedagogy is a prescribed subject for all students in the com- 
mercial department. Hereafter it will be conducted as an in- 
dependent course. In addition to the essential features of the 
regular elementary course it will include a consideration of 
many of the problems of the secondary school, and particular 
attention will be given to the pedagogical aspects of commercial 
education. [See description of course in Pedagogy, pp. 35, 36.] 

Teachers now in the service who are intending to enter the 
school to take a year's special work should make a thorough 
study of James's Briefer Course in Psychology, Ilalleck's Psy- 
chology and Psychic Culture, or some other book of equal scope. 

English. 

[Miss Learoyd.] 

The course is planned for two years. It is intended to give 
the students a thorough knowledge of the language as far as it 
may be obtained by consulting reference books on the subject 
and by reading literature, and to offer systematic training in 
expression in speech and writing. At first, the aim will be to 
ascertain the needs of the individual and to establish habits of 
accuracy and of systematic methods of work. Exercises in 
spelling, definition, dictation, taking notes from dictation and 
letter writing, including the phraseology of business English, 
will receive attention in proportion to the needs of the class. 
A detailed study of words, the sentence, the paragraph and the 
whole composition will form the basis of most of the work of 
this year. Frequent opportunity will be afforded to students 
to write short daily themes and occasional long themes, to plan 
talks efficiently and to gain ease in speaking before the class. 

During the second year an effort will be made t6 arouse the 
students to an interest in the best works of modern literature, 
and to give them training in logical, definite and clear modes of 
thought and expression. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 39 



Bookkeeping. 

[Mr. Meredith.] 

Bookkeeping is the most important and usually the most at- 
tractive study of the distinctively commercial group. It is the 
subject with which all the other subjects are most closely corre- 
lated. The aim of the course is to give the student a thorough 
understanding of the principles of bookkeeping as well as of 
the various approved methods for teaching the same. Both 
class and individual methods of instruction are used. Business 
practice is also carried on as a part of the work of this course. 

Commercial Law. 

[Mr. Meredith.] 

The whole scheme of commercial activity is regulated and 
controlled by the laws of business, and the character "and in- 
tegrity of business conduct are denned by these laws. The aim 
of this course is to give the student a knowledge of the essentials 
of commercial law, and to develop the best methods for im- 
parting this knowledge to others. The work of the text-book 
is supplemented by real or hypothetical " cases/' in which the 
law principles learned are applied. 

A library of commercial law text-books is at the disposal of 
the students. 

Economics. 
[Mr. Meredith.] 

Economic phenomena are at present much more definite and 
numerous than in the early times, when communities were 
equipped for war rather than for industry. The aim of this 
course is to provide the student with a thorough knowledge of 
the intricacies of the social system by which lie is environed, and 
the best methods of interesting younger pupils in the practical 
problems of modern community life. The value of ibis course 
is also increased by a study of the application of economic prin- 
ciples to current civic problems and legislation concerning them. 



40 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



History of Commerce. 

[Miss Deane.] 

The history of commerce treats of the rise and development 
of commercial activity. By means of text-books, lectures, sup- 
plementary reading, museum study and excursions to near by 
industrial institutions, this course aims to provide the student 
with a broad view of business relations, from the early times 
of barter to the present complicated system of exchange, and 
to give him a knowledge of modern methods for teaching the 
subject to high school pupils. 

Economic Geography. 

[Mr. Cushing.] 

Economic geography is regarded in this course as the meeting 
ground of geography and economics. The course. is based upon 
the work in geography of the preceding year, in which is empha- 
sized, more particularly, the study of those forces in nature 
which are working on man and so influencing his activities. 
An equal emphasis is now placed upon man's reaction to his 
environment, and those principles of economics 'are derived 
which help to explain the production, exchange, distribution 
and consumption of goods. 

The laboratories of this course are: local industrial estab- 
lishments, the freight house, yard and cars, local docks and 
freighters. 

Abundant concrete illustrative material is exhibited in the in- 
dustrial and commercial museum, which is one of the new fea- 
tures of the department. In it are shown the raw materials 
of commerce. Many business houses have contributed to this, 
so that the various stages of production to the finished products 
of commerce, in many lines, are exhibited. Pictures and stereo- 
scopic views help to clarify the subject. United States consular 
reports, census, statistical and other government reports, news- 
papers, market quotations, magazines and the modern text-. 
Midi as Redway's and Chisholm's, are used as sources of fact-, 
from which principles are derived and illustrated. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 41 



Shorthand. 

[Miss Smith.] 

The work of the junior year comprises the study of the princi- 
ples of Benn Pitman shorthand, accompanied and followed by 
drills for speed and accuracy on miscellaneous matter. The ac- 
quiring of technical skill is the chief aim of the course during 
this year. In the senior year, advanced academic work is offered, 
and the professional side of the subject is emphasized by the dis- 
cussion of methods, by the examination and criticism of various 
text and drill books, by observation in the Salem Commercial 
School, and by observation and practice teaching in the Salem 
High School. 

The Gregg system of shorthand may be continued by those 
students who have had a reasonable amount of instruction in it 
elsewhere. 

Typewriting. 
[Miss Smith — Miss Wellman.] 

During the junior year the aim of the course is to acquire 
proficiency in the use of either the single or the double keyboard, 
by the touch method. Particular attention is given to the form- 
ing of correct habits of position, touch, fingering, and manipulat- 
ing the machine. From the beginning, only perfect work 
written at a specified rate of speed is accepted. In the senior 
year, drills for speed and accuracy are continued, together with 
practice in arranging difficult material in correct form, tabu- 
lating, duplicating, etc. A considerable opportunity for practi- 
cal experience in this work is afforded by the needs of various 
departments of the school. Methods of teaching the subject 
are considered and various text-books are examined, criticized 
and compared. Observation and practice teaching under criti- 
cism constitute an important part of the year's work. 

Commercial Correspondence. 

[Miss Smith.] 

One hour a week is devoted to the study of forms of business 
•correspondence, and to practice in the writing of business letter- 
On the professional side, the importance of the study to high 
school classes is considered and methods and text-books arc dis- 



42 STATE X OH UAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



cussed. As an additional drill, some of the clerical work of the 
school is done in this course. 

Commercial Arithmetic. 

[Mr. Meredith.] 
Commercial arithmetic has a practical, a disciplinary and a 
cultural value. For this reason it has an important place in the 
curriculum of a commercial department. It is very closely 
correlated with bookkeeping and helps to interpret other general 
commercial subjects, such as commercial geography, transporta- 
tion and finance. The aim of this course is to give the student 
an accurate knowledge of arithmetic in its application to busi- 
ness practice. The theory and practice of teaching it accord- 
ing to modern methods is also part- of the work. 

Penmanship. 

Mr. Meredith.] 

A commercial teacher who is unable to write a plain, legible 
and rapid hand certainly labors under a great disadvantage. 
Wat and accurate penmanship is essential to either the book- 
keeper, the stenographer or the office assistant, hence every writ- 
ten recitation in the commercial department is made a lesson 
in penmanship. The aim of the course is to teach each student 
to become a good penman and to develop the best methods of in- 
structing others. 

LECTURES. 

Several lectures of general educational interest are given each 
year by people of prominence. The aim is to make them of 
• liiect practical value to the students. To this end they will 
bo arranged as far as possible in systematic courses, and ample 
opportunity for discussion will be afforded. 

Since the issue of last year's catalogue the teachers and stu- 
dents have had the privilege of listening to the following lec- 
tures and concerts : — 

Annual concert. The Glee Club of 1907-08. 

"The Function of the School in Training for Right Conduct." 

Margaret E. Schallenberger. 
" The Rural School." Mr. Grenville T. Fletcher. 




< 
en 
pq 



H 
H 

H 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 43 

Interpretative Reading : " The Rivals." Mr. Henry Lawrence 

Southwick. 
Memorial Day address. James H. Wolff, Esq. 

Graduation address: " The Training of Purpose." Mr. Joseph Lee. 
" Music and Verse in the Public School." Mrs. Jessie L. Gayxor 

and Mrs. Alice C. D. Riley. 
" Illustrative Sketching." Mr. Frederick L. Burnham. 
" Loyalty." Mrs. Ella Lyman Cabot. 
" Some Mexican Aborigines." Rev. Peter H. Goldsmith. 
" Special Training for Salesmanship." Mrs. John T. Prince. 
"Some Defects in Our Currency System." Mr. Joseph French 

Johnson. 
" Methods, Aims and Purposes of Commercial Education in the 

Secondary School." Dr. Cheesman A. Herrick. 
"Life and Influence of Abraham Lincoln." Dr. Edward Cummii 
Concert. The Glee Club of 1908-09. 
Concert. The Myra Winslow Trio. 
" Sidney Lanier." — Mrs. Kate Gannett Wells. 

THE LIBRARY AND READING ROOM. 

The general library contains a collection of books now num- 
bering 4,900, including valuable works in all departments. The 
American Library Association system of cataloguing is employed, 
with a complete card index by authors and book titles. This is 
supplemented by a card system of references by topics, already 
containing several thousand cards. In addition to the general 
library books, there is a collection of about 5,000 reference and 
text books, also carefully catalogued, for use in connection with 
the various courses. 

In the reading room are filed the leading periodicals, both of 
general nature and of specific value in pedagogical study. 

THE MANAGEMENT OF THE SCHOOL. 

Students in a school for the professional training of teachers 
should be self-governing in the full sense of the term. Each 
student is allowed and is encouraged I" exercise the larg 
degree of personal liberty consisted with the rights of othi 
The teachers aim to be friends and leaders, rather than gov- 
ernors and masters. They will not withhold advice, admonition 
and reproof, if needed; but their work iu such lines will be 



44 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 

done with individuals, and in the most helpful and generous 
spirit. Those students who, after full and patient trial, are 
found unworthy of such consideration, are presumed to he unfit 
and unlikely to hecome successful teachers, and will he re- 
moved from the school. Others also, who, hy no fault of their 
own, but by the misfortune of conspicuous inaptitude, through 
physical or mental deficiencies, for the work of teaching, will 
be advised to withdraw, and will not be graduated. 

Many matters pertaining to the general welfare of the school 
are referred for consideration to the school council. This is a 
representative body, consisting of the principal and two other 
members of the faculty, and three members chosen by each 
class. Thus the students, through their representatives, have 
a voice in the management of the school, and also assume their 
share of the responsibility for its success. 

GENERAL INFORMATION. 
Historical Sketch. 

The State Normal School at Salem was opened to students 
September 12, 1854. It was the fourth normal school estab- 
lished by the State of Massachusetts. Indirectly it was the 
outcome of steps taken to provide a new location for the first 
normal school in the State, which was opened at Lexington. 
The old school was not transferred to Salem, but the Legisla- 
ture directed the State Board of Education to establish a new 
one in Essex County, and this city was finally chosen as its lo- 
cation. 

The first building of the school stood at the corner of Broad 
and Summer streets. Its cost, including site and equipment, 
slightly exceeded $20,000. The city of Salem erected the' build- 
ing, and received in partial compensation the State appropria- 
tion of $6,000 and a contribution of $2,000 from the Eastern 
Railroad Company. The building was enlarged and improved 
in 18G0, and again in 1871. 

After twenty-five years the accommodations proved inadequate 
to meet the increased demands made upon modern normal 
schools. The Legislature of the Commonwealth consequently 
made generous provisions for a new building. Work was begun 
in November, 1893, and the building was first occupied by the 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 15 



school December 2, 1896. The site, building and equipment 
represent an expenditure of $300,000 ; and it is believed that the 
Commonwealth here possesses a structure as complete and con- 
venient as any of its kind in this country. 

The School Building. 

The building is located in the southern part of the city, — a 
section devoted chiefly to residential purposes, — in a command- 
ing position at the junction of the electric car lines from Lynn 
and Marblehead. It is constructed of buff brick, with light- 
colored stone and terra-cotta trimmings, and it has three stories 
and a basement. Facing northward, it is 180 feet in length 
from east to west, and the two wings are each 140 feet from 
north to south. In the basement are located the heating and 
ventilating apparatus, the toilet and play rooms for the pupils 
of the model schools, besides the gymnasium with its adjoining 
dressing room, the industrial laboratory, bicycle room, lunch 
room, and store rooms for supplies and materials. 

On the first floor, in the central part of the structure, are the 
toilet and cloak rooms, furnished with individual lockers, for 
the use of the normal students. Access to this portion of the 
building is provided by means of two outside doors. In each 
wing is another entrance for the pupils of the practice schools. 
The rooms for these schools — nine in number, besides six reci- 
tation rooms connected with them — are upon the cast, south 
and west sides, and are all large and well lighted. Including 
the kindergarten, they are intended to accommodate 350 pupils. 

The central portion of the second floor is occupied by the 
assembly and study room of the normal school. It is about 60 
by 85 feet in size, and can accommodate 250 single desks and 
chairs. The remainder of the floor contains the principal's 
offices, reception room, retiring room, text-book room, library. 
and other recitation and work rooms. 

The third floor is largely denoted to the various departments 
of science, including physics, chemistry, botany, geography, min- 
eralogy and zoology. One of the features is an excellent lecture 
room, with seats arranged in tiers, for lectures or similar work. 
Two rooms on the north side furnish admirable accommodations 
for the work in drawing. 



46 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 

The size and lighting of the rooms are conspicuous features 
of the building. The corridors are also noticeable for their 
width and cheerful aspect. The windows are many and lofty, 
and the glass is of the finest and clearest quality. 

The heating and ventilating plant is ample; the blackboards, 
entirely of slate, are generous in size; combination gas and elec- 
tric chandeliers are provided for lighting; from the principal's 
office speaking tubes radiate to all the important rooms; while a 
program clock, with its electric appliances, regulates the move- 
ments of the school. The interior finish throughout is of oak, 
and all the furniture of the building is in keeping. 

Decorations. 

It is generally conceded that no building or schoolroom is 
finished or furnished which lacks beautiful and artistic dec- 
orations, not only because these objects are beautiful in them- 
selves, but because of the refining and educative value. 

There is a silent influence resulting from the companionship 
of good pictures or casts, elevating the thought, and creating a 
dislike for the common, ugly and inferior type of decoration so 
often -ecu. Such works of art, well chosen and hung, may 
exert a helpful influence in other branches of study as well as 
in art. 

Willi these thoughts in mind, the pictures and casts in the 
building were selected and placed in the various rooms and corri- 
dors, and they have served their. purpose thus far in creating a 
taste for and an appreciation of good things. 

There are many pictures of historic interest, cathedrals, colon- 
nades, arches and temples, which have proved of value in g< 
raphy and history. There are photographs from works of mas- 
ters such as Corot, Millet, Mauve, Jacque, Israels and others, 
which are full of helpful suggestions in literature, language 3 
and nature study. 

These works of art have been presented by the State, by 
students and teachers, and by generous friends of the school, 
to whom due acknowledgment is made upon another page. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 47 



The Teachers and Students. 

The school during its history has had five principals and 
seventy-nine assistant teachers. The development of the prac- 
tice schools began in 1897, and with them twenty-eight persons 
have been connected as teachers. Seventeen teachers are now 
required in the normal school and thirteen in the practice 
schools. 

More than five thousand five hundred students have attended 
the school, of whom fifty- five per cent, have received either 
certificates or diplomas. The proportion of those who complete 
the course has been increasing steadily in recent years. 

The Location and Attractions of Salem. 

No place in northeastern Massachusetts is more easily accessi- 
ble than Salem. It is on the main line of the eastern division 
of the Boston & Maine Eailroad system, connecting also with 
the Saugus branch at Lynn. A branch road to Wakefield Junc- 
tion connects the city with the western division. There is also 
direct communication with Lowell, Lawrence, Haverhill, Kock- 
port, Marblehead and intervening points. Trains are frequent 
and convenient. Salem is also the center of an extensive net- 
work of electric railways. Students coming daily to Salem on 
Boston & Maine trains can obtain season tickets at greatly re- 
duced rates. Trains on the Marblehead branch stop at Loring 
Avenue, on signal, and many students find it more convenient 
to purchase their season tickets to that station. 

Salem is the center of many interesting historical association?, 
and within easy reach are the scenes of more important and 
stirring events than can be found in any other equal area of our 
country. The scenery, both of seashore and country in the 
neighborhood, is exceedingly attractive. There are many libra- 
ries, besides the free public library, and curious and instructive 
collections belonging to various literary and antiquarian organ- 
izations, to which access may be obtained at a Blight expense. 
Lectures are frequent and inexpensive. The churches of the city 
represent all the religious denominations that are common in 
\< w England. 



48 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



Expenses, Aid, Board, etc. 

Tuition is free to all residents of Massachusetts who declare 
their intention to teach in the schools of this Commonwealth. 
Students admitted from other States arc required to pay a tuition 
fee of fifty dollars per year, of which sum one-half is due Sep- 
tember 9, 1909, and the other half February 1, 1910. Text-bonks 
and supplies are free, as in the public schools. Articles used in 
school work which students may desire to own will be furnished 
at cost. Students who come to Salem to board are advised to 
bring with them such text-books of recent date as they may own. 

To assist those students, residents of Massachusetts, who find 
it difficult to meet the expenses of the course, pecuniary aid is 
furnished by the State to a limited extent. Applications for 
this aid must be made in writing, to the principal, and must be 
accompanied by such evidence as shall satisfy him that the 
applicant needs assistance. This aid, however, is not furnished 
to residents of Salem, nor during the first half-year of attend- 
ance at the school. 

Through the generosity of members of the faculty and grad- 
uates of the school, several funds have been established, all of 
which, by vote of the Salem Normal School Association, are 
administered by the principal as loan funds. Students may 
thus borrow reasonable sums of money with which to meet their 
expenses during their connection with the school, and payment 
may be made at their convenience, after they have secured posi- 
t inns as teacher-. 

Besides the "Students* Benefrl Fund' 1 are other fund-. 
founded by graduates of the school to perpetuate the memory 
of Dr. Elmer H. Capen, formerly chairman of the Board of 
Visitors, and Dr. Walter P. Beckwith. principal of the school 
from 1895 to 1905. 

At the last triennial meeting of the Salem Normal School 
Association $200 was appropriated from the treasury as a dona- 
tion to the "Benefit Fund/ 5 and steps were taken to establish 
other funds, in memory of former principals Crosby and Hagar. 
The total amount of money now available is about $1,000. The 
principal will gladly receive and credit to any of the above 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 49 

funds such contributions as graduates and friends of the school 
may be disposed to make. Frequently a little timely financial 
aid from this source may save to the profession an efficient 
teacher. 

The expense of board is moderate; two students rooming to- 
gether can usually find accommodations within easy distance of 
the school, including light and heat, at prices ranging upward 
from $4 each, per week. A record of places, where board may 
be obtained is kept at the school, and reasonable aid will be 
given to students who are seeking boarding places. It is ad- 
visable to make inquiries some time before the beginning of 
the school year. 

A lunch counter is maintained in the building, from which is 
served at noon each school day a good variety of wholesome and 
attractive food, at very reasonable prices. 

Promptness and Punctuality. 

1. Students living at home, on finding themselves likely to be 
absent more than one day, are desired to make known the fact 
in writing. 

2. Students who are withdrawing from school must return 
the books and other property of the school, and receive regular 
dismission. Those who fail to do so promptly must not expect 
at a later date any recommendation or endorsement from the 
teachers of the school. 

3. Absences for the purpose of teaching or of acting as sub- 
stitutes for more than one day must be arranged in advance. 
In general, absence for this purpose during the first year of a 
student's course will not be regarded with favor. 

4. Students must be present at the opening of school a rid- 
any recess or vacation, and must remain until all are excuse. 1. 

5. Students boarding in this vicinity, away from their parents, 
whether over or under legal age, must keep the principal in- 
formed of their addresses. All boarding places are Bubjecl t<> 
the judgment of the principal. 

As the school has no dormitory, ih<>s<> who receive its students 
into their homes must, of necessity, assume responsibility for 
the conduct of the young women thus placed in their charge 



50 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 

in the same, measure as would be required of teachers in charge 
of a dormitory. They are therefore requested to report to the 
principal any impropriety of conduct on the part of students 
which ought to be known hv him, or any behavior of theirs 
which would be considered unsuitable in a well-regulated dormi- 
tory. 

6. Students boarding in Salem must not make arrangements 
involving absence from any school exercise without previously 
obtaining permission. 

Employment for Graduates. 

The increase in the number of norma] school graduates em- 
ployed in Massachusetts as teachers has been, especially during 
the past twenty years. very much greater proportionately than 
the increase in the whole number of teachers, hut even at the 
present time they constitute not more than one-half of all the 
teachers in the State, and the demand is annually greater than 
the supply; especially for the higher grammar grades there i- 
a marked scarcity of strong candidate.-. This school does not 
undertake to guarantee positions to its students, but it is a 
fact thai promising graduates are rarely without positions three 
months after graduation. The principal take- pleasure in a-si>t- 
ing them to obtain such positions as they are qualified to fill. 
To that end he is glad to correspond or to confer with school 
authorities, lie is also glad to be informed as to the degree of 
success which has attended the efforts of former Btudents. 

Scholarships for Graduates. 

There are offered at Harvard University four scholarships, 
each of an annual value of one hundred fifty dollars, for the 
benefit of students in Harvard College who are graduates of 
any reputable normal school in the United States. 

Notices to School Officials. 
All interested persons, especially those connected in any way 

with educational work, are cordially invited to visit the school, 
to inspect the building and equipment, or to attend the exer- 
cises in its class rooms or practice schools at any time and 
without ceremony. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 51 

During the summer vacation, some person qualified to give 
information regarding the school, its work and the conditions 
of admission will be at the building each forenoon, except Satur- 
day. Bequests for catalogues are always promptly honored. 

Superintendents and other school officials are requested to 
send to the school copies of their reports, courses of study and 
other publications of common interest. The courtesy will be 
appreciated and reciprocated. 

Every person claiming to be a graduate of this school should 
be able to show either a diploma or a certificate of the fact of 
graduation. Since January 1, 1900, all students who have left 
the school by reason of graduation, or otherwise in good stand- 
ing, possess a diploma, a certificate showing the completion of a 
year's work, or a certificate of honorable dismissal. The last- 
named paper is not to be understood as a recommendation of 
proficiency in- scholarship or teaching ability. 

IN MEMORIAM. 
Dr. Richard Q. Edwards. 

Departed this life on the 7th of March, 1908, Richard Ed- 
wards, the first principal of the State Normal School at Salem, 
Massachusetts. 

Dr. Edwards's official connection with this school covered the 
brief period of three years, from 1854 to 1857. His eminent 
fitness for the work of organization and his untiring energy 
and enthusiasm were potent factors of success, and secured at 
once for the school the confidence and support of the public 
and. the cordial co-operation of faculty and students. A skill- 
ful and inspiring teacher, kindly and sympathetic in all the 
relations of school life, he is recalled with pride and affection 
by members of the early classes, who appreciate their privilege 
in having been his pupils. 

His subsequent work was in the west, where lie filled many 
positions of importance. From 1857 to 1862 lie was principal 
of the St. Louis normal school, from 1862 to 1876 president of 
the Illinois. State Normal Institute, and from 1887 to 189] 
State superintendent of public instruction in Illinois. II'- re- 
vision of the school laws of that State and numerous address* - 
on the leading educational topics of the time are noteworthy 



52 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 

features of this period, while his personal interest and helpful 
words served both as counsel and as inspiration to hosts of young 
teachers, in whom he always took especial interest. 

The story of Dr. Edwards's life shows a varied and interest- 
ing career. Born in AVales in 1822, the oldest of ten children, 
he came to this country in 1833 and lived for some years in 
Ohio. We next hear of him, in 1845, as a student in the 
Bridgewater Normal School ; then as teacher of a country school 
in Hingham; and in 1848 as a recipient of the two degrees of 
civil engineer and bachelor of science at Eensselaer Polytechnic 
Institute, in Troy, N. Y. Then come five years of teaching in 
the Bridgewater Normal School and a year in Salem as princi- 
pal of the Bowditch high school, during which time he is also 
an agent of the State Board of Education. His work in the 
wr-i wins due recognition: from Harvard he receives the degree 
of master of arts in 1863, and in 1867 that of doctor of laws 
from a western college. In 1891 he is honored with the degree 
of doctor of divinity, for in other years than those named he has 
been variously occupied in the west as preacher, as instructor, 
as college president. 

A strong character, a winning personality, it may well be said 
of him in his own words, spoken of the teacher who was to him 
the source of inspiration: " The great work which he did for i 8, 
and which we most highly value, is precisely that which cannot 
be. represented in speech. That higher teaching was not con- 
veyed in words, and words cannot impart it to others. If im- 
parted at all. it must be by the sympathy of spirit with Bpirit." 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



53 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE DECORATIONS OF THE BUILDING. 



The Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts. 

The Salem Normal Association. 

The Peabody Academy of Sci- 
ence. 

Mr. George R. Chapman. 

Richard Edwards, LL.D. 

Mrs. C. 0. Hood. 

Mr. James F. Almy. 

Miss Annie M. Phelps. 

Mr. Ross Turner. 

Hon. Robert S. Rantoul. 

The Class of February, 1857. 

The Class of February, 1858. 

The Class of July, 1858. 

The Class of February, 1859. 

The Class of July, 1859. 

The Class of February, 1860. 

The Class of July, 1861. 

The Class of January, 1877. 

The Class of January, 1883. 

The Class of June, 1888. 

The Class of June, 1891. 

The Class of June, 1896. 



The Class of January, 1897. 
The Class of June, 1897. 
The Class of 1898. 
The Class of 1899. 
The Class of 1900. 
The Class of 1901. 
The Class of 1902. 
The Class of 1903. 
The Class of 1904. 
The Class of 1905. 
The Class of 1906. 
The Class of 1907. 
The Class of 1908. 
The Class of 1909. 
The Class of 1910. 
The Model School Class of 1903. 
'The Model School Class of 1904. 
Certain students and friends of 

Miss Elizabeth Weston. 
Certain students and friends of 

Miss Harriet D. Allen. 
Other teachers and graduates 

and others. 



A pianola has been presented by the Glee Clubs of 1906-07 
and 1907—08: a library of pianola music by the Glee Club of 
1908-09. 

The following citizens of Salem have generously contributed 
to the decorations of the schoolrooms in the practice school : — 



Mrs. James F. Almy. 
Mr. George A. Brown. 
Mr. William O. Chapman. 
Mr. Robin Damon. 
Mr. William H. Gove. 
Mr. George B. Harris. 
Mrs. William M.Hill. 



Mr. Frank A. Langmaid. 
Mr. J. Henry Langmaid. 
Mr. Arthur L. Lougee. 
Mr. William Messervey. 
Mr. John M. Raymond. 
Mr. Ira Vaughn. 
Mrs. Charles F. Whitney 



54 



STATE XORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE LIBRARY. 

Generous contributions to the library have been made by 



The Class 
The Class 
The Class 
The Class 
The Class 
The Class 
The Class 
The Class 
The Class 
The Class 
The Class 
The Class 
The Class 
The Class 
The Class 



of July, 1863. 

of January, 1 s < 9. 
of January, 1870. 
of January, 1874. 
of January, L875. 
of July, IS 7-"). 
of January, 1876. 
of June, 1876. 
of January, 1880. 
of June, 1880. 
of January, 1 S H . 
of January, 1882. 
of June, 1883. 
of January, 1885. 
of June, 1885. 



The Class of January, 1886. 
The Class of June, L886. 
The Class of January, 1887. 
The Class of January, 1889. 
The Class of January. 1890. 
The Class of January, 1891. 
The Class of January, 1892. 
The Class of June, 1892. 
The Class of June, 1894. 
Mrs. Thomas Hawken. 
Dr. John B. Peaslee. 
Dr. James L. Hill. 
Mr. Frederick W. Ried. 
Many teachers and others. 



STATU NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



55 



Register of Students. 
1908=1909. 



Graduates. — Class : 

Alley, Evelyn Lewis, . 
Anderson, Lydia Christina, 
Barrett, Katherine Estelle, 
Bassett,. Helen Gertrude, . 
Batchelder, Elizabeth Annie, 
Batehelder, Ethel May, 
Beloff, Olga, . 
Bjorklund, Sigrid Christine, 
Brennan, Marion Eunice, . 
Bucksey, Addie Margaret, 
Carleton, Avis, . 
Chapman, Fred Allen, 
Chase, Annie Mellissa, 
Cohane, Mary Alice, . 
Copland, Jenny Farquhar, 
Corbin, Rosalind Fidelia, . 
Crocker, Ethel Florence, . 
Croscup, Abbie Mae, . 
Dalrymple, Ethel Rimmer, 
Davidson, Florence, . 
Desmond, Eleanor Frances, 
Dinan, Gertrude, 
Dowling, Mary Teresa, 
Durkee, Louise Maria, 
Field, Florence Emma, 
Fielder, Joyce Lisabel, 
Fisher, Mildred Hodges, 
FitzGerald, Irene Marie, . 
Flanders, Verna Belle, 
Grady, Ethel Maria, . 
Hainsworth, Alice Sarah, . 



June 23, 1908. 

Gloucester. 

Everett. 

Newbury port. 

North Andover. 

North Reading. 

East Northwood, N. H. 

Amesbury. 

Maiden. 

Melrose. 

Peabody. 

Beverly. 

Salem. 

Beverly. 

Salem. 

West Somerville. 

Everett. 

Maiden. 

Maiden. 

Marblehead. 

Salem. 

Maiden. 

Wakefield. 

Everett. 

North Wilmington. 

Winchester, X. H. 

Everett. 

Cotuit. 

( !ambridge, 

Lynn. 

Lynn. 

North Andover. 



56 



STATE VORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



Hamilton, Marion, 
Hill. Louise An ilia, . 
1 [oughton, Gladys Isabel, . 
[saac, Millie Alice, 
l\ elley, Marguerite Loretta, 
* Locke. Helen ( tuida, . 
Marshall, Harriet Feme, . 
Mel labe, Annie < Gertrude, . 
Merrill, Laura Elizabeth, . 
Merrill, Mildred Frances. . 
Moran, Agnes Louis 
Murray, Mary t !atherine, . 
Mnsso, F I lertrude, 

O'Brien. Eleanor Elizabeth, 
Phillips, Lillie May. . 
Ramsdell, Amy Frances, . 
Rand, Ella Robens, . 
Rea, Bessie Eva, 
Rees, Ethel Kmnia. . 
Remon, Marion Ella, . 
Reynolds, Katharine Elizabeth, 
Ryan, Juliette Marie. 

3, Elspeth Cumberland, 
oith, Ethel Marion, 
Walsh. Julia Anna, . 
Walsh, Marie Theresa, 
Welch, Frances Elizabeth, . 
Wetmore, Mildred Alison, . 
White. Sybil Marion. 



i RTIFN \ - < >\ 

Day, Mary Russell, . 
Bradstreet, Martha Eva, . 
Merrow, Ethe : t. . . 



Everett. 
Lynn. 

N • ► i t li Andover. 
( lambridge. 
Lynn. 
Chelsea. 
( tloucester. 
( lambridge. 
Salem. 

West Somerville. 
< lambridge. 
■ re. 
Lynn. 
( lambridge. 
Nahant. 
Beverly. 
Amesbury. 
North Andover. 
Lynn. 
Salem. 
Salem. 
( lambrid 
Andovi 
Maiden. 

North Cambridge. 
Manchester. 
West Somerville. 
Essex. 
Wesl Lynn. 



i Yi lb's Work. 

. Salem. 
Beverly. 

Salem. 



Students in the Elementary Course. 

Senior Cl.\ 

Armstrong, Elizabeth Baker. . . . Maiden. 

p, Bessie Clark Lynn. 

Barrows, Q ace Cowdery, . . South Royalton, Yt. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



57 



Bartlett, Marion Louise, . 


. Revere. 


Berry, Elizabeth Cummings, 


. Maiden. 


Brooks, Anna Belle, . 


. Peabody. 


Brooks, Jennie Elizabeth, . 


. Cambridge. 


Brunton, Isabelle Macadam, 


. Somerville. 


Bruorton, Annie Beryl, 1 . 


. Reading. 


Christie, Ruby Law, . 


. Maiden. 


Clifford, Alice Martha, 


. Melrose. 


Connell, Honora Agnes, . 


. Cambridge. 


Cooper, Annie Winifred, . 


Cambridge. 


Curtis, Bessie Warren, 


. Boxford. 


Cusick, Agnes Mary, 


. Pigeon Cove. 


Dailey, Anna Elizabeth, . 


. Cambridge. 


Deane, Bertha Laura, 


Salem. 


Duane, Helen Frances, 


. Beverly. 


Donohoe, Carolyn Louise, 1 


. Lynn. 


Duncan, Belle, .... 


. Maiden. 


Enlind, Anna Hildur, 


. Peabody. 


Estes, Edith Marion, 


. Melrose. 


Evans, Mary Abbie, . 


. Rochester, N. H. 


Fernald, Alice Hildreth, 1 . 


. Reading. 


Flagg, Catherine, 


. Swampscott. 


Flynn, Mary Gray, . 


. Lynn. 


Foster, Ethel Morrison, . 


. Melrose. 


Foster, Helen Page, . 


. Beverly. 


Fuller, Martha Louise, 


. Danvers. 


Gamboa, Angelica Mae, 


. South Hamilton. 


Gaughan, Alice Winifred, 1 


. Cambridge. 


Grant, Pearl Arlene, 


. Haverhill. 


Green, Elsie Cary, . 


. Ipswich. 


Harrington, Mary Rose, . 


. North Cambridge. 


Harris, Gertrude Trumbull, 


. Salem. 


Hazelton, LTna Lulu, 2 


. Salem. 


Hazen, Marguerite May, . 


. Beverly. 


Hutchinson, Frances Rita, 


. Peabody. 


James, Ruth Katharine, . 


Salem. 


Jansson, Victoria Heding, 


. Maiden. 


Johansen, Fannie Olena, 1 . 


. Newburyport. 


Kelley, Anna Louise, 


Salem. 


Lee, Helen Evans Williams, 1 . 


. Chelsea. 


Legro, Edna Somers, 


. Salem. 



1 Three-years course. 



2 Left before the end of the first half year. 



58 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SAL KM. 



Lundberg, Eleonora Fredericka, 

Mack, Helen Frances, 
MacRitchie, Angie May, . 
Marshall, Mildred Josephine, 
McGrath, Mary Frances, 1 . 
McKenzie, Edna Florence. 
Metcalf, Florence Stearns, 
Millea, Anna Eileen, . 
Moodie, Ruth Margaret, . 
Miille, Laura Augusta, 
Munsey, Xorma, 
Nelligan, Grace Isabel, 1 
O'Brien, Kathleen Holmes, 1 
Obst, Mary Gertrude, 1 ' * 
O'Callaghan, Mary Anne, 1 * 8 
O'Hara, Gertrude Regina, 
Oliver, Hazel Isabell, 1 
Palmer, Clara Louise, 
Poor, Bertha Winifred, 
Powell, Jennie Loretta, 
Sayre, Alice Frances, 
Smith, Edna Martha. 
Sperry, Bertha Mae, . 
Spofford, Edna Noyes, 
Sullivan, Clare Margaret, . 
Taylor, Bessie Cinderella, . 
Vol lor, Anna May, . 
Ward, Mary Catherine, 
Williams, Alice Preston, . 
Wollahan, Helen Hani nut on. 
Woods. Esther Jane, . 
Wrigley, Walter Simeon, . 



Maiden. 

Salem. 

Everett. 

East Saugus. 

Amesbury. 

Northwood Ridge, X. H. 

Williston, Vt. 

Danvers. 

Newburyport. 

Somerville. 

Marblehead. 

( anibridge. 

Amesbury. 

( anibridge. 

North Cambridge. 

Cambridge. 

Wakefield. 

Everett. 

Salem. 

North Cambridge. 

Medford. 

( 'anibridge. 

Amesbury. 

South Groveland. 

Cambridge. 

West Peabody. 

Salem. 

Cambridge. 

Beverly. 

Danvers. 

Newburyport. 

North Andover. 



Students in Second Year of Three- years Course. 

Better, Margaret May, .... Revere. 

Cunningham, Margaret Pauline,"' . . Gloucester. 

DeLory, Isabel Olivia. .... Swampseott. 

Dempsey, Mary Louise, .... Peabody. 

Donovan, Mary Frances, .... Salem. 

Fox, Agnes Gertrude, .... Salem. 

Harney, Margaret Laurentia, . . . Lynn. 



1 Three-years course. 



2 Left before the end of the first half year. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



59 



McNamara, Marietta Agnes, 
Mulligan, Helen Marie, 
Nelson, Marie Gertrude, 1 . 
O'Connor, Eleanor Spelman, 
Powell, May Veronica, 
Riley, Mary Elousie, . 
Robertson, Elizabeth Harriet, 
Thurston, Lura, 
Wallis, Edna Elizabeth, . 
Weed, Hortense, 



Cambridge. 

Salem. 

Gloucester. 

Cambridge. 

Maiden. 

Salem. 

Beverly. 

Rockport. 

Rowley. 

North Sandwich, N. H. 



Junior Class. 

Barentzen, Olive Mary, 
Barnes, Charlotte, 
Blood, Marion Helena, 
Boyd, Grace Gladys, 
Burnham, Alice Stacy, 
Butterfield, Marion Ascenath, 
Cahill, Elizabeth Cecelia, . 
Carroll, Margaret Mary, . 
Corson, Murle Augusta, . 
Cotter, Chester, 
Coyne, Jane Agatha, 
Coyne, Sarah Stanislaus, . 
Crosby, Mildred Parker, . 
Dempsey, Katharine Louise, 1 
Edgcomb, Elva Dawn, 
Fay, Josephine Louise, 
FitzHugh, Lena Grayson, . 
Flanders, Leona, 
Fowler, Maude Anna, 
Gardner, Laura Alston, 
Gardner, Marion Warren, 
Gil more, Mary Elizabeth, . 
Healy, Alice Jeanette, 
Houghton, Lucy Forbush, 
Hutchins, Susie Blanche, . 
Johnson, Helen Louise, 
Jones, Agnes Marian, 
Keating, Mary Veronica, . 
Kellev, Florence Gardelena, 



Fraiiklin Park. 

Chelsea. 

Derry, N. H. 

Beverly. 

Beverly. 

Maiden. 

Dan vers. 

Cambridge. 

Salem. 

Rowley. 

Andover. 

Somerville. 

Groveland. 

Boston. 

Salem. 

Jericho, Vt. 

Amesbury. 

Maiden. 

Lynn. 

Everett. 

Dan vers. 

Pea body. 

Chelsea. 

North Andover. 

Union, N. H. 

Lynn. 

Chelsea. 

Salem. 

Wakefield. 



1 Left beforr'tlie end'of the first half year. 



<>0 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



Kimball, Alice Belle, 1 


. Bradford. 


King', Mabel Disa, 


. Bradford. 


Kinnear, Margaret A. W., 


. Salem. 


Krashin, Walter, 1 


. Roxbury Crossing. 


Laskey, Adelaide Mary, 


. Maiden. 


Lord, Marian Dean, . 


Harrington, Me. 


Loring, Marion Alice, 


. Groveland. 


Maguire, Marion, 


. Salem. 


Merritt, Ruth Breed, 


. Danvers. 


Moody, Edna Gertrude, 1 . 


. Everett. 


Moran, Mabel May, . 


. Lynn. 


Murphy, Gertrude Agatha, 


. Cambridge. 


Nelson, Elizabeth Kristina Louise, 


. Beverly. 


Xewcomb, Marion Faustina, 


. Swampscott. 


O'Neill, Edna Gertrude, . 


. Lynn. 


O'Xoil, Loretto Magdalen, 


. Maiden. 


Patch, Marion Elizabeth. 


. Lynn. 


Perry. Dorothy, 


. Revere. 


Pierce, Lilian Mae, . 


. Lyn n . 


Pulsifer, Helen Marks, 


Salem. 


Riley, Marguerite Rose, . 


. Melrose. 


Sawin, Christabel Elissa, . 


. Everett. 


Sawin, Harriett Josephine, 


. Everett. 


Shannon, Mabel Elizabeth, 


. Lynn. 


Shortell, Mary Beatrice, . 


. Salem. 


Stack, Mary Lillian, . . . 


Andover. 


Stearns, Helen Isabelle, 


. West Somerville. 


Stratton, Lucy Marie, 


. Maiden. 


Swanson, Fanny Amelia, . 


. Pigeon Cove. 


Tucker, Ruth Elizabeth, . 


. Somerville. 


Tweeddale, Ruth Barbour, 1 


Lynn. 


Walker, Eleanor Elizabeth, 


. West Lynn. 


Ward, Gertrude Beatrice, . 


. Beachmont. 


Wass, Edith Adelaide, 1 . 


. Salem. 


Welch, Irene Marie, 


. Lynn. 


Weston, Martha Mary. 


. Essex. 


Wildes, Mary Aloysia, 


. Lynn. 


Wildes, Mildred F., . 


. Topsfield. 



1 Left before the end of the first half year. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



(51 



Students in First Year of Three-years Course. 



Allen, Pansy Edna, . 


Saugus. 


Beadle, Helen Josephine, . 


. Groveland. 


Chapman, Maud Ethel, 


. Melrose. 


Cohen, Rachelle Ruth, 


. Chelsea. 


Cotton, Edith Frances, 


. Maiden. 


Devlin, Helen Madeline, . 


. Stoneham. 


Eames, Hilda Weston, 


. North Reading 


Granfield, Susie Frances, . 


. Reading. 


Harrigan, Frances Agnes, 


. Danvers. 


Harris, Daisy, .... 


Saugus. 


Israelite, Anna Bessie, 


. Chelsea. 


Jenkins, Lena, .... 


* . Ipswich. 


Knox, Evelyn May, . 


Saugus. 


McMurray, Jane, 


. East Boston. 


O'Rourke, Annette Camba, 


. Peabody. 


Quinn, Alice Irene, . 


. Swampscott. 


Roche, Elizabeth Constance, 


. Salem. 


Shea, Grace Elizabeth, 


. Salem. 


Sidmore, Grace Merrill, . 


. Danvers. 


Thorp, Clara Frances, 


. Maiden. 



Special Students, One-year Course. 

Austin, Edith Pearle, .... Lynn. 

Bullard, Ruth Augusta, 

Hartshorn, Caroline Sibley, 1 

Hinchcliffe, Bertha Elizabeth, 

Jones, Mercy, 

Lewis, Ada Snow, 



Burlington, Vt. 

Dorchester. 

Stoneham. 

Brookline. 

Somerville. 



Students in the Commercial Course. 

Junior Class. 
Bagley, Marion Brooks, 
Bragdon, Ethel Coffin, 1 



Bruce, Helen, . 
Burke, Bertha Mae, . 
Card well, Nelson Henry. 
Damon, Gladys, 
Daverin, Maude Burbank, 



Peabody. 

Danvers. 

Rockport. 

Rowley. 

Springfield. 

Danvers. 

Dal ton. 



1 Left before the end of the first half year. 



62 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



Davis, Augusta Louise, 
Day, Mary Ellen, 
Dean, Helen, 
Dodge, Mary Prince, 
Dennis, Mabelle Douglass, 
Fielding, May, . 
Fitzgerald, Edwina Frances, 
Flynn, Catherine Marie, . 
Giles, Martelle Elsie, 
Gould, Mary Gertrude. 
Healy, Agnes Leon a. 
Hickey, Florence Augusta, 
hers, Mabel Florence. 
Keith, Nelly Doris, . 
Kennedy, Abbie Jones, 
Martin, John Edward, 
Moody, Pauline Francis.' . 
Mullen, Annie Maude, 
Mulligan, Nellie Elizabeth, 
Oliver, Warren Walton, . 
Pearson, Signe Hilda. 
Roche, Anna Theodora, 
Slade, Madeleine Louise, . 
S( and ley, Ethel Frances, . 
Sullivan, Helen Frances, 1 . 
Sullivan, Nellie Agnes, 1 
Tuxbury, Ruby Louise, 
Wilbur, Lawrence Winton, 



Amesbniv. 

Salem. 

Salem. 

Manchester. 

Revere. 

Danvei>. 

Revere. 

Salem. 

Salem. 

Danvers. 

Danvers. 

Wakefield. 

Salem. 

Snlem. 

« 

I )anvers. 

West Pea body. 

Lynn. 

Rowley. 

Salem. 

Wakefield, 

Lynn. 

Salem. 

Danvers. 

Manchester. 

Salem. 

Lynn. 

Amesbnrv. 

North Ravnham. 



Students in First Year of Three-years Course. 

Chisholm, Marguerite Agnes, . . . Ipswich. 

Flaherty, Mary Aloysie, .... Salem. 

Hornstein, Dora, ..... Chelsea. 

Managhan, Eli/a Agnes, .... Amesbniv. 

Tassinari, Emma Madelene, . . . Salem. 

Turbett, Alice Rose, ..... Salem. 



Special Students, One-year Course. 

Barrett, Katherine Estelle, . . . Newburyport. 

Batchelder, Elizabeth Annie, . . . North Reading. 

Burnham, Bertha Williams, . . . Old Town, Me. 



1 Left before the end of the first half year. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 



63 



Bucksey, Addie Margaret, 


. Peabody. 




Campbell, Elinor Stark, . 




. North Reading. 




Cohane, Mary Alice, 






. Salem. 




Corey, Marian Annetta, 






. Amesbury. 




Elliott, Marion Porter, 






. Danvers. 




Flanders, Verna Belle, 






. Lynn. 




King, Emma Helena, 






. East Boston. 




Krieger, Jennie, 






Salem. 




Lowe, Bertha Esther, 






. Lynn. 




Merrill, Mildred Frances, 






. West Somerville. 




Randall, Ruth Alice, 






. Athol. 




Rees, Ethel Emma, . 






. Lynn. 




Remon, Marion Ella, 






Salem. 




Ryan, Juliette Marie, 






Cambridge. 




Shepard, Mary Estelle, 






. Walpole. 




Skinner, Helen Choate, 






. Lynn. 




Smith, Ethel Marion, 






. Maiden. 




Wetruore, Mildred Alison, 


. 


. Essex. 




Wightman, Lucy A., 1 




. Maiden. 




Woodbury, Bessie Sweetser, 




. Gloucester. 




Sum ma 


ry. 




Students of the elementary course, . 




ISO 


Special students, elementary course 


• 


6 


Students of the commercial course, . 


. . . 


41 


Special students, commercial course. 




23 
'250 


Whole number of students from open 


ing of school, . 


5.675 


Whole number of graduates, 


.... 


2,092 


Number of certificates for one year's 


work, .... 


:>l 



1 Left before the end of the first half year. 



Certificate Required for Admission to a Preliminary 

Examination. 



1909. 



.has been a pupil in the 



School for three years, and is, in my 

judgment, prepared to pass the normal school preliminary examination in 
the following group or groups of subjects and the divisions thereof : — 

Group II Group IV 

Group III Group V. 

Signature of principal or teacher, 

Address, 



Certificate of Graduation and Good Character. 

This is to Certify that M 



is a regular graduate of a four years' course of the 



High School, and that, to the best of my knowledge 

and belief, _he is a person of good moral character. 

Trmcipal. 

1909. 



I •••<«««••«<•<<••••••• • 



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